In this article, we will explore how to calculate the sum of array elements using recursion in C++. We will provide a clear explanation of the concept and then walk through a step-by-step example.
Recursion is a powerful programming technique that allows a function to call itself in order to solve a problem. It is often used to simplify complex problems and can be a valuable tool in a programmer’s toolkit.
Recursion involves breaking down a problem into smaller, more manageable subproblems. In the context of summing array elements, we can think of the problem as follows:
- If the array is empty (i.e., it has no elements), the sum is 0.
- If the array has one element, the sum is that element.
- If the array has more than one element, we can break it down into two parts:
- The first element (the head) and
- The remaining elements (the tail).
We can calculate the sum of the array by adding the head to the sum of the tail, where the sum of the tail is calculated using the same recursive function.
Sum of Array Elements Using Recursion
Explanation of the Code
- We define a recursive function
sumArraythat takes two arguments: an array
arrand its size
- In the base case, when
sizeis 0 (i.e., the array is empty), the function returns 0 because there are no elements to sum.
- In the recursive case, we calculate the sum of the array by adding the first element
arrto the result of the recursive call
sumArray(arr + 1, size - 1), where
arr + 1represents the tail of the array, and
size - 1indicates the reduced size of the array.
- In the
mainfunction, we create an example integer array
arrand calculate its sum using the
sumArrayfunction. We then print the result to the console.